Next we’ll examine Java generics. This is an advanced topic, but one that you are bound to encounter as you continue to use Java. Generics also allow the compiler to better check our code—and we always want that. So let’s do this!
We’ve already seen generics at use when using Java’s containers like
We can create a bare
List, but using one requires dangerous downcasting:
Instead, by providing a type parameter when we create the list, we can get the compiler to help us:
Remember: runtime errors cause things to fail right in the user’s face. This is not good! Compiler errors, in contrast, must be caught in development. So transforming runtime errors to compiler errors helps us produce more correct programs. This is good!
OK—so now we know how to use classes that accept type parameters. But how about using the in our own classes? This turns out to not be too hard! Let’s explore together.
To start, let’s design a class that does not support type parameters:
Next, let’s look at how to add a generic type parameter to our example above.
This will allow the compiler to ensure that all of the values added to
LastN are the same type!
There are a few important things to understand about how Java compiles generic classes. First, the type parameter is not a variable. You can use them in most places that you would normally use a type, but you can’t assign to them, or use them in a constructor call:
One useful way to think about what happens when your program is compiled is that the compiler replaces the type parameters with types used in your code. So, given this generic class:
If I create a
Example<String>, it’s almost as if I had written this code:
Let’s talk through a few more examples together:
You can use any name to name your type parameters. But Java has established some conventions. Specifically:
Efor element (like a list),
Vfor key and value (like a map),
Just like Java classes, interfaces can also accept type parameters. That includes one interface that we are fairly familiar with by now!
You may have noticed above that when we implemented
LastN we used a
List rather than an array.
That wasn’t an accident!
Let’s see why and what problems arise with generic arrays.
(What follows is bonus bonus material, but very cool!)
Let’s consider another example where we’d like to use generics:
Let’s explore how we can complete the example above using another feature of Java’s generics system: bounded type parameters.
This lesson has barely scratched the surface of what is possible with Java generics. If you want to learn more, this is a good place to start.
You regularly see generic type parameters in Javadoc. Now that we’ve discussed a bit about how to use type parameters in our own code, we’re more prepared to understand documentation for classes that use them. Let’s look at one familiar example together and discuss how to identify and interpret these type parameters.
Let's determine if a binary tree is height balanced. A tree is height balanced if the height of any node's two subtrees (right and left) never differ by more than 1.
Provide a public class named
BinaryTreeBalanced providing a single public class method named
isBalanced accepts a
BinaryTree and returns
true if the tree is balanced, and
If the passed tree is
null, you should throw an
A few hints on this problem:
nullwhich you want to handle as a valid base case in your recursion
Need more practice? Head over to the practice page.